Since National Islamic Front (NIF) ascendancy to power in 1989, radical Islamists known since then as Inqaz regime, managed to stave off both internal and external threats to power, demonstrating a recombinant capacity in Hydamann’s term. With Sudan losing its oil revenue in 2011with secession of South Sudan, the government made a lot of fuss about negative impact of US imposed sanction on its dependent economy that became even more vulnerable to outside volatile economic and financial changes.
In January 2017 and before leaving office President Barak Obama eased some economic sanctions imposed on the country since 1990s and in October 2017 President Donald Trump finally lifted economic sanctions imposed on Sudan. How would competing power circles appropriate lifting of sanctions, capture expected rents and spoils and effect re-alignment of forces? What is the likely impact of lifting of economic scenarios on regime survival or reform?
This paper argues that post-sanctions represent a challenge for NCP/NIF ‘dominant’ fraction of Northern Arab-Muslism bourgeoise leaving the door open for ‘reformist’ elements to ponder for how long they would bear the cost of supporting al-Bashir autocracy who is backed by rentier, crony capitalists. While external actors haunted by security vacuum are likely to attempt mediate and encourage peaceful rather than violent change, one lesson learned from past experience is that external pressures never deliver credible regime change by themselves, meaningful regime change must be embedded in and led by internal democratic forces. As things stand now, the likelihood of such eventuality is rather remote.
Atta El-Battahani is a Professor in Political Science, Political Economy; educated at Khartoum University (Sudan) and Sussex University (Britain). Earlier, he served as Head Department of Political Science, Faculty of Economics, University of Khartoum; as Manager and Senior Advisor for International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) in Sudan.
He has extensive research experience and has published on Development Impact of Ethnic and Religious Conflicts in African Societies; Governance and state institutional reform in Africa and the Middle East; conflict and Cooperation in the Nile Valley; Gender Politics; Peripheral Capitalism and Political Islam; Elections and Political Transitions, and Democracy Deficit in the Arab World.
El-Battahani is Editor-in-Chief of Sudan Journal of Economic and Social Studies.
CEDEJ Khartoum is located in Khartoum 2 (street 59), not too far from Ozone. The closest « famous » building is an hospital : mustachfa « Jaber Abu el 3eez », mustachfa sukari (for diabetes). Our centre is at the second floor (there is a « CEDEJ » sign on the balcony).
CEDEJ Khartoum is pleased to organize a seminar on Sunday, May 7th, 2 pm, on Syrians in Khartoum by Alice Koumurian and Vivian Hartlief.
Alice Koumurian, Project officer in CEDEJ Khartoum, will present her research :
« Sudan: a Destination Country? The Case of Syrians Who Have Arrived After 2011 in Khartoum »
Situated in the Horn of Africa, Sudan is at the heart of a particularly complex migration system. Sudan is affected by large influx of Eritrean, Ethiopian, Somali and South Sudanese migration flows. Furthermore, it is equally affected by large-scale internal displacements and therefore must face possible departure of its own citizens.
This study focuses on a particular group that recently augmented these flows: that of Syrians who have arrived in Sudan after 2011 and whose profile and aspirations still remain largely unknown. Since Sudan is one of the very few countries still granting them a visa-free entry into its territory, there has been an uninterrupted flow of Syrians to Sudan after the outbreak of the Syrian crisis in 2011.
Le mercredi 15 mars, deux chercheuses associées au CEDEJ Khartoum, Alice Franck et Raphaëlle Chevrillon-Guibert, ont débattu de la situation politique au Soudan à l’iReMMO, l’institut de Recherche et d’études Méditerrannée et Moyen-Orient.
CEDEJ Khartoum is pleased to announce the following event:
« Food Aid, Power and Profit: An historical analysis of the relation between food aid and governance in Sudan »
A conference by Susanne Jaspars
On Monday 6th March, 2017 at 4 PM
at the Faculty of Economic and Social sciences (meeting room) of the University of Khartoum
Susanne will be presenting some of the key findings of her recently completed PhD research on food aid in Sudan. She studied at Bristol University, with Mark Duffield as her supervisor. Professor Atta Al-Batahani at the University of Khartoum sponsored the research in Sudan.
Using concepts of genealogy and governmentality, Susanne’s thesis explores how food aid regimes of practices have changed over time and their interactions with local governance. It argues that shifts in regimes of practices can be seen as abandoning crisis-affected populations to become resilient to permanent emergency. At the same time, food aid has unintentionally led to a semblance of development for the Sudan government and private sector.
Azza Mustafa Mohammed Ahmed, University of Khartoum
Who will present her PhD research on
Democracy and Political Parties in the Arab World. Case Study: Sudan and Lebanon
On this occasion, we will have the pleasure of receiving Pascal Boniface – the Director of the French Institute for International and Strategic Affairs (IRIS, Paris).
The present research examines democracy in the Arab World with an emphasis on comparing democracies in both of Sudan and Lebanon. It analyses the variance and similarity between the two cases; and identifies the political, social and cultural reasons and factors that led to the hindering of establishing democracy in Sudan in contrast to its relative success in Lebanon. The research examines the role of political parties and their discourses are compatible with their social and political objectives.
Dans le cadre des « Jeudis de la BRA », la bibliothèque de recherches africaines de l’Institut des mondes africains (IMAF), Alice Franck et Elena Vezzadini présenteront le jeudi 8 décembre à 18h, le dernier dossier de la revue Égypte/Monde Arabe (n° 14, 2016): « Le soudan après l’indépendance du Soudan du Sud ».
CEDEJ Khartoum was pleased to organize a meeting on September 25th between its researchers/students and Dr Hamit Bozarslan.
Hamit Bozarslan was born in 1958 in Lice, in Turkey. He holds a PhD in history from the School of Higher Studies in Social Sciences (EHESS), Paris and a PhD in Political Science from the Institute of Political Studies (IEP). His main areas of research interests are: Turkey, the Kurdish issue, minorities in the Middle-East, history and sociology of violence in the Middle-East.
Hamit Bozarslan was a research fellow at the Marc Bloch Centre (Berlin) between 1995 and 1997 and a visiting scholar at Princeton in 1998. He was nominated associate professor (1998) and director of studies (2006) at the EHESS. He co-led the IISMM (Institute for the study of Islam and Muslim societies worldwide) between 2002 and 2008. Hamit Bozarslan is currently Director of Studies at the EHESS (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales) in Paris. His most recent publications include Comprendre le génocide des arméniens, de 1915 à nos jours, with Raymond Kevorkian and Vincent Duclert (Paris, Tallandier, 2015), Histoire de la Turquie de l’Empire à nos jours (Paris, Tallandier, 2013), Sociologie politique du Moyen-Orient (Paris, La Découverte, 2011) and Passions révolutionnaires. Amérique latine, Moyen-Orient, Inde (with Gilles Bataillon & Christophe Jaffrelot, Paris, Éditions de l’EHESS, 2011).
On August 23rd, CEDEJ Khartoum was pleased to organize a seminary on migration issues, through different perspectives, with the participation of:
Dr Idris Salam Hassan, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Khartoum and at the University of Africa, with a strong interest on migration/refugees/internally displaced people;
Ester Serra Mingot, PhD Candidate at the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences in Maastricht University. She introduced her fieldwork in Sudan with Sudanese families, for her PhD on « Transnational Social Protection. How Sudanese migrants in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom and their families in Sudan make use of social protection, locally and transnationally »;
Miralyne Zeghnoune, a Master 2 student in development practices at Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne University. She presented her fieldwork in Sudan about Sudanese migrants. She initially started her fieldwork in France where she collected data on Sudanese migrants (migratory route, reasons for leaving, future projects, connections with the family in Sudan, etc.). In Khartoum, she has been studying these migrants’ family and entourage (initial project, administrative procedures, contacts with the migrant, etc.).
Alice Koumurian, Project Officer in CEDEJ Khartoum, introduced her fieldwork about the Syrian migrants who arrived after 2011 in Khartoum.
Le lundi 28 mars 2016, Khadidja MEDANI a présenté au CEDEJ les premiers résultats de son travail de terrain auprès des migrants centre-africains à Khartoum.
On Monday 28 March, Khadidja MEDANI has presented in CEDEJ her findings from her fieldwork with Central-African migrants in Khartoum.
By Khadidja MEDANI:
Student in a Master 1 in Geography at the University
Panthéon-Sorbonne, I am on a fieldwork about the Central African
community in Khartoum. The border between the Central African Republic and Sudan has always been porous and the Central African’s presence in Darfur is old. However, the migration of Central African in Khartoum seems to be more recent and linked with the troubles since the putsches of François Bozize and Michel Djotodia. This small community has still a low visibility and has not been studied since now. I focus my study on why and how they left the Central African Republic and came into Sudan. I try to find which networks lead them up to Khartoum and help to their integration. I also ask the question of the status of these migrants. This last point reveals a link between the refugees and the students. Actually, the main network for the Central African
to integrate them in Khartoum seems to be the International University of Africa. ◼
Vignettes tirées de la bande-dessinée « Tempête sur Bangui », de Didier Kassai, La Boîte à Bulles/Amnesty International, 2015.
On Sunday 31st January, Mariam Sharif presented in CEDEJ her M.A. thesis “Interaction between health Institutions in knowledge and medical practices in South Kordofan/Nuba Mountains“
This research focuses on nurses as one of actors who adopt knowledge and medical practices through their interaction with other health practitioners and health institutions in plural medical system. This interaction has been traced through nurses’ process of learning, getting tools and working under the conditions of complex emergencies in South Kordofan.
This research was aiming:
– to deploy qualitative methods (participant observation, narrative interviews) in order to elucidate the interaction of nurses in different health care systems and institutionalized medical knowledge and practices,
– to analyse the challenges for building public health services in conflict and post-war areas, and
– to probe the question how health services can facilitate non-violent social interaction and non-violent contest over resources. ◼
On Wednesday 27th January, Peter Miller hold his first seminar in CEDEJ Khartoum.
Peter Miller, masters student in Social Sciences at the University Paris VIII, presented a case study from his research “Marriage Strategies and Social-Spatial Identity Reconfigurations in Khartoum (Amarat)”, his fieldwork having been carried out with the support of the CEDEJ over the last 3 months. After the presentation we organized a round-table discussion on the analysis of his data. ◼
On January 21st, at the University of Khartoum, Dr Katarzyna Grabska presented her book « Gender, Home & Identity: Nuer repatriation to Southern Sudan » (James Currey, 2014).
This book launch was organized with the support of CEDEJ Khartoum and the University of Khartoum.
How and where did returning Nuer refugees make their ‘homes’ in South Sudan? How were gender relations and identity redefined as a result of war, displacement and return to post-war communities? And how were those displaced able to recreate sense of home, community and nation?
During the civil wars in Southern Sudan (1983-2005) many of the displaced Sudanese, including many Nuer, were in refugee camps in Kenya and Ethiopia. In the aftermath of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, they repatriated to Southern Sudan. Faced with finding long-lost relatives and local expectations of ‘proper behaviour’, they often felt displaced again.
This book follows the lives of a group of Nuer in the Greater Upper Nile region. The narratives of those displaced and those who stayed behind reveal the complexity of social change and show how this has impacted on state formation in what is now South Sudan and, in particular, the crucial yet relatively unconsidered transformation of gender and generational relations.
Katarzyna Grabska is a research fellow with the Department of Anthropology and Sociology of Development and a project leader with the Global Migration Centre at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva. She is co-editor (with Lyla Mehta) of Forced Displacement: Why Rights Matter? (Palgrave 2008) and author of numerous articles and book chapters. She is an affiliate of French Research Centre in Khartoum (CEDEJ) and Ahfad University for Women in Omdurman.◼
CEDEJ Khartoum was very pleased to have Dr Jean-Pierre Filiu’s visit on December 17th for a meeting about Islam with several researchers who contributed to the CEDEJ Research programme « Islam and Society in Sudan ».
Since 2006, Dr Jean-Pierre Filiu is Professor of Contemporary History of the Middle East at Sciences Po University. There, he is also a member of the Department of History and teaches in the Paris School of International Affairs (PSIA).
He graduated from Sciences Po University in 1981 and from the National Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilizations (INALCO) (diploma in Chinese in 1983 and in written Arabic in 1985).
He obtained his PhD at Sciences Po University in History (1985) as well as the authorization to supervise research (2008). He was also a visiting professor at the American universities of Columbia and Georgetown.
Dr Jean-Pierre Filiu joined the CERI, the Center of International Research in Sciences Po University in 2009.
From 1988 to 2006, Dr Jean-Pierre Filiu was Adviser for Foreign Affairs in the embassies of France in Syria, Tunisia and Jordan. He this capacity, he also worked in the offices of the Minister of the Interior (1990-1991), the Minister of Defence (1991-1993) and the Prime Minister (2000-2002).
The President François Hollande appointed Dr Jean-Pierre Filiu in 2012 as Member of the Committee for the drafting of the White Paper on Defense and National Security.
You can read two of his recent articles (in French) dealing with Sudan on his blog:
CEDEJ Khartoum was pleased to receive on January 12th, 2016 Dr Stéphane Lacroix, for his seminar « Fieldwork on Islamism: Methodological Issues ».
Dr Stéphane Lacroix is an expert on the Arab World and holds a PhD in political science. He is currently a professor at Sciences Po University and is equally affiliated to CEDEJ Cairo as a senior researcher. His research primarily focuses on political authoritarianism and on the resistance it generates, on social movements and on the relationship between Islam and politics in the contemporary era. Islamist movements lie at the heart of his research, both from the sociological perspective of mobilizations and that of intellectual history. His authoritative fieldwork sites are Saudi Arabia and Egypt. ◼