CEDEJ Khartoum is pleased to announce the following publication (in Italian):
La contrapposizione tra apparati militari e movimenti islamisti è uno dei temi ricorrenti della storia contemporanea del mondo arabo. Il Sudan ha costituito l’unica eccezione a questa consolidata rivalità, grazie alla spregiudicatezza del carismatico Hasan al-Turabi, architetto del colpo di Stato che nel 1989 ha dato vita a un’insolita coalizione tra militari e islamisti. Il regime sudanese, tuttavia, non è riuscito a rappresentare un’“alternativa islamica” rispetto al modello autoritario dominante nel mondo arabo, ma ne ha assunto i caratteri violenti e alienanti. Esacerbando le fratture identitarie, esso si è spinto fino a compromettere l’unità del paese, rotta dalla secessione del Sud nel 2011. Ricostruendo una storia poco nota, il volume offre un punto di vista originale su quell’intreccio tra islamismo, conflitti armati e aspirazioni democratiche che costituisce la cifra della politica araba attuale.
Cet article propose une étude croisée des évolutions du commerce de rue et de l’approvisionnement en eau à Khartoum. Ces deux secteurs sont envisagés comme des révélateurs des restructurations de la gestion urbaine de l’agglomération. L’objectif de ce texte est d’interroger l’hybridation des réformes néolibérales, accrues depuis la moitié des années 2000, et des logiques de contrôle autoritaires. Cette approche s’appuie sur des enquêtes qualitatives auprès des acteurs quotidiens du service de l’eau et de la vente de rue, dans différents quartiers de la capitale soudanaise. La première partie revient brièvement sur l’évolution du régime autoritaire au Soudan, marquée par une adaptation à des modèles néolibéraux internationaux, et en interroge de possibles déclinaisons à Khartoum. Inspirés de ces modèles, les réformes de décentralisation et de privatisation génèrent un redéploiement de la bureaucratie de l’État à des niveaux intermédiaires, ainsi qu’une redistribution des prérogatives d’aménagement de l’espace urbain auprès de partenaires privés sélectionnés. D’autre part, dans les quartiers, l’intégration des récentes normes de gestion au sein des deux secteurs d’approvisionnement urbain conduit à l’imbrication de plusieurs logiques de contrôle, anciennes et nouvelles, qui redéfinissent les rapports d’autorité entre l’État et les citadins.
Based on comparative fieldwork studies of the Muslim ‘Feast of the Sacrifice’, this article questions the places, shapes and stakes of ritual animal death in the urban space. The examples of Istanbul (Turkey) and Khartoum (Sudan) illustrate different but comparable perceptions, practices and management of a ritual event simultaneously associated with religious traditions and confronted with deep transformations in urbanised and globalised societies. Between ritual normalcy and controversial practice, sacrifice in the city is not reducible to a religious matter but addresses at once spatial, social and cultural issues, informed by economic and political stakes. Through a ritual performance and its manifold aspects, the article explores the multiple and evolving representations of the place and role of animals (and their death) in an urban context.
Most researchers and students who contributed to this issue are affiliated to CEDEJ Khartoum.
South Sudan officially gained independence on the 9th July 2011. This was the outcome of the peace agreement signed in January 2005 and in accordance with the national referendum of January 2011. This historic event, which should have put an end on the historical conflict between the Northern and Southern regions and communities, constituted a real challenge in term of adaptation, resilience and innovation for the whole of the society. In this unprecedented context of the birth of a new national territory, and the remodelling of existing spatial and political configurations, South Sudan has logically been at the centre of attention – whether this be from political actors, researchers or humanitarian donors. However, the North has been profoundly affected by this rupture as well. The intention of this issue is to shed light on some of these transformations.
CEDEJ Khartoum is happy to announce Katarzyna Grabska’s recent publication of a chapter entitled “Eritrean Migratory Trajectories of Adolescence in Khartoum: (Im)mobility,Identities, and Social Media” in the collective book « Networks of Knowledge Production in Sudan. Identities, Mobilities, and Technologies » edited by Sondra Hale and Gada Kadoda (Lexington Books, Sept. 2016).
Dr Katarzyna Grabska is an associate researcher at CEDEJ Khartoum..
CEDEJ Khartoum is pleased to announce Elise Tenret’s recent publication « Exclusive Universities: Use and Misuse of Affirmative Action in Sudanese Higher Education » in Comparative Education Review (May 2016).
Although characterized by repeated ethnic conflicts, Sudan has implemented affirmative action at universities since the 1970s for students coming from war zones and remote areas. The implementation of compensatory measures has been promoted—somehow imposed—by the several peace treaties and by the massive expansion of higher education during the 1990s. The former have led to the creation of “special admission,” mainly for students coming from conflict zones; the latter has led to the creation of “state admissions,” which favor local recruitment for the newly created universities. However, those measures have proved inefficient for several reasons: first, the lack of consistency of the policy; second, the lack of political will; third, the lack of monitoring. The wider context—the liberalization of higher education and the independence of South Sudan—has also contributed to diminishing the scope of the policy.◼
CEDEJ Khartoum is pleased to announce Raphaëlle Chevrillon-Guibert’s recent publication : « Les commerçants zaghawa du Darfour (Soudan) : des passeurs de frontières » [Pathways of Accumulation in Sudan: The Case of Darfurian Cross-Border Traders] in Territoire en mouvement Revue de géographie et aménagement.
Article publié sur le site de Noria, think tank et réseau d’experts en relations internationales
Cette enquête (en anglais) porte sur l’échec de la Cour Pénale Internationale (CPI) au Soudan. En se focalisant sur le Président soudanais Omar El-Béchir afin d’obtenir son arrestation, l’action de la CPI et les manœuvres politiques autour de la qualification de génocide, ont eu des effets dramatiques sur la catégorisation des minorités au Darfour.
De ce travail se dégagent trois conclusions majeures :
This research investigates the processes and dynamics of identity formation in multi-ethnic communities in shantytowns in Sudan’s capital Khartoum. Recent studies suggest that in Sudan, conflicts are influenced by ethnic identity struggle at the national level between Arab ethnic groups versus African ethnic groups including also all other bilateral cultural divides (e.g. Muslims/Christians, Arabic language/local languages). The main aim of the research is to specify the different kinds of identities (e.g. ethnic, urban, class) that individuals and groups adopt as well as the reasons for this adoption. The theories and approaches used in this study include structural-functionalism, the historical approach (New-Marxism), and the situational/circumstantialist approach. I mainly use the situational/circumstantialist approach to explore and analyze the phenomenon. The research is based on intensive fieldwork, following day-to-day life of people, and on grounded theory method to analyze and interpret the processes of identity formation in Elbaraka area in Khartoum. ◼
Alice Franck, Jean Gardin et Olivier Givre ont récemment publié « La mort animale rituelle en ville Une approche comparée de la « fête du sacrifice » à Istanbul, Khartoum et Paris » dans la revue Histoire urbaine, Animaux dans la ville 1 – 2015/3 (n° 44)
En examinant de manière comparative le déroulement et les enjeux du sacrifice musulman dans trois contextes métropolitains différents, cet article interroge la place de la mort animale rituelle dans l’espace urbain, à partir d’exemples ethnographiques issus d’enquêtes de terrain réalisées lors de la « fête du sacrifice » en 2014. Les exemples d’Istanbul, Khartoum et Paris traduisent des perceptions, des pratiques et des gestions à la fois distinctes et comparables d’un événement rituel simultanément associé à la tradition religieuse et confronté à de profondes transformations au sein de sociétés urbanisées et globalisées. Qu’il relève d’une forme de normalité rituelle (Khartoum), d’une pratique jugée « déplacée » (Paris) ou encore d’une pratique à la fois domestiquée et controversée (Istanbul), le sacrifice en ville s’avère tout à la fois un enjeu spatial et social, économique et politique. Il offre un observatoire privilégié des représentations plurielles et croisées de la place de l’animal (et de sa mort) dans les espaces urbains.
This article adopts a comparative approach to study the processes and the key issues involved in the Muslim practice of sacrifice in three different urban contexts. In doing so, it questions the role of ritual animal death in the urban context, based on ethnographic examples taken from fieldwork studies conducted during the “feast of the sacrifice” in 2014. The examples of Istanbul, Khartoum and Paris illustrate different but comparable perceptions, practices and management of a ritual event simultaneously associated with religious traditions and faced by deep transformations in urban and globalized society. Whether it refers to a ritual normality (Khartoum), to a practice judged “misplaced” (Paris) or both a domesticated and controversial practice (Istanbul), sacrifice in the urban context is both a spatial and social issue, economically and politically. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the many representations of the role of the animal (and its death) in urban contexts. ◼
On January 21st, at the University of Khartoum, Dr Katarzyna Grabska presented her book « Gender, Home & Identity: Nuer repatriation to Southern Sudan » (James Currey, 2014).
This book launch was organized with the support of CEDEJ Khartoum and the University of Khartoum.
How and where did returning Nuer refugees make their ‘homes’ in South Sudan? How were gender relations and identity redefined as a result of war, displacement and return to post-war communities? And how were those displaced able to recreate sense of home, community and nation?
During the civil wars in Southern Sudan (1983-2005) many of the displaced Sudanese, including many Nuer, were in refugee camps in Kenya and Ethiopia. In the aftermath of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, they repatriated to Southern Sudan. Faced with finding long-lost relatives and local expectations of ‘proper behaviour’, they often felt displaced again.
This book follows the lives of a group of Nuer in the Greater Upper Nile region. The narratives of those displaced and those who stayed behind reveal the complexity of social change and show how this has impacted on state formation in what is now South Sudan and, in particular, the crucial yet relatively unconsidered transformation of gender and generational relations.
Katarzyna Grabska is a research fellow with the Department of Anthropology and Sociology of Development and a project leader with the Global Migration Centre at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva. She is co-editor (with Lyla Mehta) of Forced Displacement: Why Rights Matter? (Palgrave 2008) and author of numerous articles and book chapters. She is an affiliate of French Research Centre in Khartoum (CEDEJ) and Ahfad University for Women in Omdurman.◼
This article has been published on Noria Research website (Network of Researchers in International Affairs) http://www.noria-research.com/
The travesty election of the Marshal Abdel Fattah el-Sisi to the presidency of the Republic in July 2013 (Final report)1 demonstrates the permanence and the solidity of the authoritarian basis of the Egyptian State apparatus. Despite the political changes that have taken place since 2011, the prolonged presence, including during Mohamed Morsi’s presidency, of the same political actors within the security apparatus, has led, if not to an authoritarian “restoration”, at least to its re-composition within a counter-revolution movement. In order to grasp the modalities of the transformations and reproduction of authoritarian practices at the national level, studying the migratory issue, and more precisely the forced migration of Sudanese exiled in Egypt 2, provides a particularly pertinent analytical entry. Indeed, the issue of migration is administered by the State Security (amn al-dawla), and not by a ministry or any other governmental organ. It thus represents a key to understand both the regional political context and the spaces of migration, as well as the Egyptian “authoritarian syndrome”3
On a tremendously hot afternoon in Khartoum, I am soaking up the freshness of one of the only air-conditioned rooms in my Sudanese family’s compound when my mother-in-law’s mobile phone suddenly jolts to life. Even before she answers the phone we instinctively start to dance and sing to the Sudanese pop song that is her ringtone. This scene resembles the way mobile phones have brought joy and happiness as well as possibilities for increased global connectivity into daily family life in Sudan.