Accreditation to supervise research – Barbara Casciarri

Barbara Casciarri, from the University Paris 8, has submitted in  last December for her accreditation to supervise research a synthesis of her research entitle « Ethnographies pastorales en « situation globale » at the University Lumières Lyon 2. This presentation is the results of 24 years of anthropology fieldwork in Morocco and Sudan.  You will find following the summary, writing in French by Barbara Casciarri, of the synthesis.

Ethnographies pastorales en « situation globale »

Ce mémoire constitue le bilan de mes recherches de terrain en anthropologie qui se sont déroulées sur une période de 24 ans (1989-2013) dans deux contextes africains (le Soudan et le Maroc), avec une focalisation constante sur la catégorie des sociétés pastorales, par un travail conjoint au sein d’équipes interdisciplinaires aux composants variés (préhistoire, sciences naturelles, géographie). Les groupes qui ont fait l’objet de mes enquêtes (Aḥāmda, Baṭāḥīn et Awlād Nūba au Soudan, Aït Unzār au Maroc) partagent un même contexte écologique  (milieux  arides  africains),  une  forte  liaison  avec  les modes  de  production  et  de  reproduction sociale  typiques du pastoralisme nomade, et certains  traits culturels qui  sont communs à  l’aire dite arabo-musulmane.  Plusieurs  thématiques  ont  caractérisé  mes  recherches  chez  ces  groupes :  les  institutions politiques  locales et  leur  rapport avec  l’Etat central ;  les  formes d’accès aux  ressources naturelles  (terre et eau) ; les formes identitaires et les idéologies ancrées dans les systèmes de parenté, les rapports de sexe ou le « paradigme tribal » ; les transformations liées aux crises écologiques, à la sédentarisation, à l’urbanisation, à l’incorporation dans un système dominé par la logique capitaliste ; les interventions d’acteurs divers pour le  développement  et  la  « modernisation ».  Dans  ce  mémoire  je  reprends  les  résultats  principaux  de  ces données ethnographiques, qui ont fait déjà l’objet de publications ponctuelles, en essayant de dépasser leur particularité. Mon  objectif  est  d’établir  une  synthèse  capable  de  souligner  les  interactions multiples  des dynamiques sociales analysées et de déceler leur redéfinition constante au sein du contexte global qui dans la conjoncture actuelle incorpore ces sociétés de petite échelle. Néanmoins,  ce mémoire  ne  veut  pas  se  limiter  à  une  revue,  par  ordre  chronologique  ou  thématique,  des données  issues de mes enquêtes et de  leur  systématisation ou  interprétation. Ce  travail est aussi guidé par l’ambition  de  développer  une  réflexion  capable  de  contribuer  au  débat  plus  large  de  l’anthropologie  du monde contemporain.

Second Workshop of Andromaque Project – Sudan

The Sudanese team of the Andromaque project held a second Workshop in Khartoum in the reading room of the CEDEJ, on Sunday 2 March, from 9:00 am to 13:00 pm.

The Andromaque Sudan Team gathered  European and Sudanese researchers, whose main background is social anthropology, and has recently integrated 2 researchers with a law background. The members present at the workshop of the research team were: Barbara Casciarri (anthropologist, University Paris 8 Saint Denis, France, team’s scientific coordinator);  Munzoul Assal and Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil (Department of Anthropology, UoK);  Mohamed Abdessalam Babiker (Department of Law, UoK); Philippe Gout (PhD in Law, University Paris II Panthéon Assas, France) and Mai Azzam ( PhD student in anthropology, Khartoum, Sudan). Alice Franck, the coordinator of the CEDEJ in Khartoum was also present during the workshop.

For further information about the Andromaque project you can refer to the post about the first workshop of Andromaque.

Ongoing Research – Franck Derrien

Franck Derrien is geographer. After his master (université Paris-IV-Sorbonne, Institut de géographie), he defended his PhD thesis entitled “Analyse de l’occupation du Sinaï durant l’Holocène : comparaison des occupations humaines actuelles et passées” at the university of Aix-Marseille the 25th june 2012.

Franck Derrien works in Egypt since 10 years. In this country, his research focuses on an ethnographic study of the Bedouin of Sinai, their tribal boundaries, the seasonal management of the territories and the saints’ cult practices. After 2 years in Cairo as a researcher for the French ministry of foreign affairs (Nov 2004 – Nov 2006) and more than 1 year as a Police officer to the French ministry of higher education and research in Paris (Oct 2009 – Jan 2011), he is Research associate to the Cedej-Khartoum since 2012.

Franck Derrien works in Sudan since 2008. His research focuses on an ethnographic study of the nomads who use the desert roads of the Sudanese western desert for animal, salt and natrun trade.

Coming back from Selima oasis (North Sudan)

An interview with the nomads coming from Darfur and going to Egypt (Sedeinga, Sudan, November 2013) © Coralie Gradel
An interview with the nomads coming from Darfur and going to Egypt (Sedeinga, Sudan, November 2013) © Coralie Gradel 

 

A nomad drawing ground the track between Egypt and Sudan (Farafra, Egypt, January 2013) © Franck Derrien
A nomad drawing ground the track between Egypt and Sudan (Farafra, Egypt, January 2013) © Franck Derrien 

Selima is located approximately 120 km north-west of the Nile at the latitude of Sedeinga and 70 km from the border with Egypt. This oasis was a stop on the Darb al-Arbain linking Darfur (Sudan) to Assiut (Egypt), through Bir Natrun, al-Chab and Kharga, among others. This track was used, at least in some portions, until the 1980s. The team of the French archaeological mission “Selima Oasis Project” worked in this oasis between the 31st October 2013 and the 17th November 17, 2013, under the direction of Coralie Gradel, Researcher at the French Unit of the National Museum in Khartoum (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs /CNRS). The team included two German researchers from the University of Cologne and four Sudanese (an inspector of antiquities, a driver and two workers).

As the geographer of this archaeological mission, Franck Derrien was responsible for mapping the oasis (vegetation, water resources …) in November 2011. Two years later, the aim was to complete the map, to obtain informations about the excavation and the transport of salt and natrun by nomads between Egypt and Sudan and get information about the current use of the desert roads of the Sudanese Western Desert by nomads for animal trade (camel, donkey, cow…). This study is a continuation of the research that he leads in the Egyptian Western Desert since 2012 when he began an ethnographical study of the Rachaida, a tribe whose members moved along the Darb al-Arbain between the oasis of Kharga and Selima until the 1980s.

The results of the first mission conducted in 2011 were presented at the 7th International Conference of the Dakhleh Oasis Project organized by the University of Leiden (http://media.leidenuniv.nl/legacy/dop-2012-programme.pdf). The first results of the 2013 mission will be presented at the 13th International Conference for Nubian Studies at the University of Neuchâtel between the 1st and the 6th September 2014.

The touristic performance of Sudan

The camel drivers waiting the tourists near the pyramids of Méroé (November 2012) © Franck Derrien
The camel drivers waiting the tourists near the pyramids of Méroé (November 2012) © Franck Derrien 

Sudan is now at a key moment in its history. When he was still the largest country in Africa, the economy was mainly based on oil. Following the self-determination referendum which resulted in the declaration of independence of South Sudan on 9th July 2011, Sudan lost 10 millions of inhabitants, a quarter of its surface and substantially all of its oil revenues, the fields are mainly located in the south. The country is therefore time to decide. Sudan must find other sources of income. Can tourism contribute significantly to the supply of foreign exchange and job creation in this country?

After a short presentation of the current economic context of Sudan, Franck Derrien present successively the assets of the country regarding tourism, its touristic performance, the strategies implemented to optimize the sector of the tourism and the challenges to increase its economic weight. This study ends with a synthesis which recapitulates the strengths and the weaknesses of the sector of the tourism in the Sudan in 2013, without forgetting the opportunities and the threats (SWOT Analysis). This article will be published mid-2014 :

Franck Derrien. Le Tourisme au Soudan : une destination confidentielle ? Tourisme et territoires. Volume 4. Juin 2014.

Ongoing Research – Guillaume Sauloup

Guillaume Sauloup is a Ph.D student in geography at the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (UMR Prodig-CNRS). He analyses street economies in Sudan. He conducted five fieldworks since 2010 with the assistance of CEDEJ. After a first study (for a master degree) on construction laborers, his current research focuses on street workers in several neighborhoods of the capital of the Sudan (Khartoum 2, Souk el arabi, Mayo, Deim). The aim of the research is to understand the contribution of street jobs in the shaping of urban space and their role in the « urban belonging » of workers. Guillaume is currently writing his thesis and teaching at the university.

Phd Defense – Raphaëlle Chevrillon-Guibert – Des commerçants au cœur de l’expérience islamiste au Soudan

 

Raphaëlle Chevrillon-Guibert has defended her thesis « Des commerçants au cœur de l’expérience islamiste au Soudan. Rapports de/au pouvoir et recompositions des communautés darfouriennes zaghawa à l’aune des alliances du mouvement islamiste soudanais (1950-2011) » at the University of Auvergne (France) on the 6/12/2013. She was housed by the CEDEJ center of Khartoum during her fielwoks. Here is the abstract of her thesis:

« The study examines the formation and the domination of Sudanese Islamists’ hegemony (Gramsci, 1929-1935) by shedding light on the alliances they constructed with specific segments of the Sudanese society before and after their rise to power. More specifically, it aims to provide an analysis of the alliances’ formation with members of the Zaghawa-Darfurian ethnic community, with a special focus on economic activities. This analysis of the “constellations of interests” (Weber, 1921) of the different actors and their conjunction, enables to understand the ways people obey and disobey. Thus, this dissertation underlines how the Zaghawa communities have been associated to the Islamist project very early and describes the modalities of this association. One result is that those alliances are in fact all but a monolithic system but far more the result of various interests’ articulation at different levels (individual, collective, local or regional, professional or family, etc.) which never stop to be redrawn.

This work is based on a one year fieldwork and combined with a methodological approach using various scale levels (Revel, 1996; Grossetti, 2006).

It shows some of the mechanisms for the support, acceptance or accommodation (three ways to obey for an individual) of an authoritarian regime. It reveals that those mechanisms aren’t the unique result of explicit strategies or a question of legitimacy but depend on both individual and collective logics of action, that are more or less autonomous and that develop in specific systems of constrains.

 

Antonio Gramsci, Cahiers de prison, présentés et traduits chez Gallimard en 5 volumes, Paris, 1978 (cahiers 10 à 13), 1983 (6 à 9), 1990 (14 à 18), 1992 (19 à 29),1996 (1 à 5)

Michel Grossetti, « Trois échelles d’action et d’analyse. L’abstraction comme opérateur d’échelle », L’Année Sociologique, vol. 56, n° 2, p .285-307, 2006.

Jacques Revel (dir.), Jeux d’échelles. La micro-analyse à l’expérience, Le Seuil-Gallimard, Paris, 1996, 248 p.

Max Weber, Économie et Société, 1921. Traduction française Plon, Paris, 1971, 650 p. »

 

First Workshop of Andromaque Project – Sudan at CEDEJ, Khartoum

The Sudanese team of the Andromaque project held a first Workshop in Khartoum in the reading room of the CEDEJ, on Sunday 24th November, from 10:00 am to 17:00 pm.

Andromaque is the acronyme for Anthropologie du Droit dans les Mondes Musulmans Africains et Asiatiques (Law Anthropologie in the African and Asian Muslim Worlds), a scientific research project supported by the French ANR (National Agency for Research) and led by Baudoin Dupret, director of the Centre Jacques Berque (Rabat, Morocco). It was launched in 2011 and will be achieved at the end of 2014. Its aim is to inquiry the relation between different sources of law (mainly customary and Islamic law) starting from the observation of actual legal practices and related social dynamics among Muslim groups in various regional contexts (Morocco and Sudan in Africa, India and Indonesia in Asia). It is coordinated with Prometee, a project whose aims and issues focus on the same approach and which analyzes similar situations of “legal pluralism” in Mauritania, Algeria and Lebanon.

Andromaque wokshop on 24/11/2013 in the CEDEJ center of Khartoum.(Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil 2013)
Andromaque workshop on 24/11/2013 in the CEDEJ center of Khartoum. (Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil 2013) 

The Andromaque Sudan Team gathered 6 European and Sudanese researchers, whose main background is social anthropology, and has recently integrated 2 researchers with a law background. The members of the research team are: Barbara Casciarri (anthropologist, University Paris 8 Saint Denis, France, team’s scientific coordinator); François Ireton (socio-economist, CNRS, France); Yazid Ben-Hounet (anthropologist, Laboratoire d’Anthropologie Sociale, France); Munzoul Assal and Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil (Department of Anthropology, UoK); Zahir M. Abdelkarim (anthropologist, PhD candidate at the Max Planck Institute, Germany); Mohamed Abdessalam Babiker (Department of Law, UoK) and Philippe Gout (PhD in Law, University Paris II Panthéon Assas, France).

The main topics tackled by the research team are: issues of land property and transmission in contemporary Sudan (pastoral collective “tribal” lands; agricultural land along the Nile Valley; residential land in the peripheral areas of Greater Khartoum); processes of conflicts’ legal resolution in various contexts (“informal courts” in IDPs areas around the capital town; mechanisms for settlement of disputes between farmers and pastoralists in the Eastern region; trials in “state courts” of Khartoum); overviews of the evolution of legal system(s) in Sudan concerning mainly land ownership, customary and statutory courts, and the relation between international law and shari’a law concerning the definition of minorities.

The aim of the workshop was to present the evolution of the various fieldwork cases, to establish a stronger relation between the social anthropology and the law approaches to legal practices and systems in contemporary Sudan and to link them to the wider common questions raised by the Andromaque project as a whole. The participants to the workshop also discussed the project of an edited book, that should be published soon after the end of the research program (2014) and would hopefully represent an interesting contribution for an interdisciplinary insight to this domain (legal practices and normative law systems) that is so crucial for understanding social dynamics in contemporary Sudan. Another meeting of the Andromaque Sudan Team would be held between February and March 2014, whose aim will be both the follow up of the editorial project and the organization of a final open workshop for the end of 2014.

Barbara Casciarri

Ongoing Research – Philippe Gout

Philippe Gout is a Ph.D student in international law at the Institute of Higher International Studies (Paris 2 Panthéon-Assas University). His research relates to The Protection of Minorities in Peacebuilding Process and mainly addresses ethnic groups. Relying on a regional approach, Philippe essentially focuses on the African context and on the legal innovations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.

His research brings closer two different issues: Peacebuilding – which is often equated to the new legal and controversial concept of jus post bellum – and the law of minorities. So as to associate these two issues into one comprehensive study, the research combines two objectivist approaches to international law: the sociological approach (G. Scelle) and the more recent democratic approach to international law (built upon J. Habermas’ thought).

Starting with Sudan as his main field research, Philippe intends to widen the scope of his study to Sudan’s surrounding States in order to challenge the classic legal dichotomy between international and internal armed conflicts. In so doing, the research aims at testing the consistency of the new legal concept of jus post bellum and at determining the nature and scope of the legal responsibility and accountability of peacebuilding stakeholders: from local tribal units to international organizations’ agencies.

The research otherwise aims at determining the extent to which international and regional legal systems rely on traditional laws of ethnic – and religious – groups in an attempt to uphold the peacebuilding process.  It notably tries to determine whether ethnic units can be granted collective status and rights additional to standard individual minority rights. It finally calls into question the international legal personality of ethnic minorities in the African regional legal context (either as legal or natural person).

 

After two experiences within the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (Office of the Prosecutor) and the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (Trial Chamber), Philippe was granted a scholarship by CEDEJ and is now carrying Ph.D research in Sudan. He is also a contributor to the Andromaque-Sudan Project (ANR – CJB) related to The Anthropology of Law in African and Asian Muslim Worlds: The Sudan.

 

The team

The permanent team of the CEDEJ-Khartoum is:

– Alice Franck, coordinator of the branch

– Alice Koumurian, project officer

Moreover, several researchers are attached to the center as associate researchers.

– Einas Ahmed, political scientist, Associate researcher

– Franck Derrien, geographer, Associate researcher

-Katarzyna Grabska, Anthropologist, Associate researcher

– Raphaelle Chevrillon Guibert, political scientist, Associate Researcher

-Agnès de Geoffroy, political scientist, Associate researcher

-Elena Vezzadini, historian, Associate researcher

Apart from them, and according to programs carried on, the center hires ad hoc researchers, both Sudanese and international.

Moreover, the CEDEJ-Khartoum is deeply rooted in the Sudanese academic environment. It maintains particularly strong links with the University of Khartoum.

 

Mission and activities

  • Research Programs

The CEDEJ-Khartoum has been focusing its scientific activities around three main themes:

Islam and Society in Sudan and South Sudan 

The Islam Research Project (IRP) has mobilized a team of Sudanese and foreign researchers around the themes of new religious trends in Sudans and that of the status of religious minorities after the partition. This project was funded by the Dutch Ministry for European Affairs and International Cooperation.

Political and social restructuring underway in Sudan and South Sudan 

The CEDEJ-Khartoum has been closely following up political events and their consequences since the partition. Several research projects were launched to underline challenges and opportunities faced by Sudans. For instance, the centre organizes conferences in Addis Ababa to offer Sudanese, South Sudanese and foreign researchers a debating space.

Access to resources and their management

The centre worked on the access to resources and resources management in Sudans. A publication is in progress. Moreover, it took part in the Wamakhair program, led jointly by French, German and Sudanese institutions and dealing with water management in reater Khartoum.

  • Seminars and conferences

The CEDEJ-Khartoum wishes to favor research and exchanges among Sudans’ specialists. In that perspective, the center regularly organizes conferences and workshops to present and share its works, in Sudan as well as abroad. Moreover, the branch welcomes PhD seminars, which consists of a series of presentations given by PhD students regarding Contemporary Sudan and South Sudan in human and social sciences.

  •  Grants

The CEDEJ welcomes and supports students willing to carry researches on Sudan and South Sudan. It offers short-lived grants to young researchers in human and social sciences, Sudanese as well as foreigners. Moreover, in collaboration with the Cultural Cooperation Department of the French Embassy in Sudan, it supports a few Sudanese PhD students who were granted a scholarship to go study in France. Finally, the branch provides European PhD students with an International Mobility Grant (Aide à la Mobilité Internationale – AMI), aiming at supporting research on contemporary Sudan and South Sudan in anthropology, sociology, geography, political science, economy, history or law. ◼

 

Documentation centre

Image1

In 2007, the CEDEJ Khartoum opened a documentation centre in its facilities (Khartoum 2, cf. map reverse) for students and researchers working on Sudans.

The centre is opened to the public every day, from 9am to 12am and from 2pm to 5pm. Its development constitutes a priority for the branch in the years to come. It gathers about thousand documents in English, Arabic and French. Internet connection and working space are available.

 

The IRP (Islam Research Programme)

closing conference IRP program - March 4, 2013, University of Khartoum

 

The Islam Research Programme in Sudan is part of an overall research program “Strengthening Knowledge of and Dialogue with the Islamic/Arab World” commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands. The general aim of the program is to strengthen knowledge of and dialogue with the Muslim world. The program ‎concentrates on research on contemporary developments in the Muslim world that are relevant to Dutch policy ‎development in the field of international cooperation. Subjects of research fall within the areas of Islamic law, ‎political and socio-economic developments, and culture and religion.

The project is implemented in Sudan by the CEDEJ-Khartoum, which led a multidisciplinary team of researchers composed of Sudanese, French and American scholars who study religion, and its multiple expressions, social, political and legal in the societies of Sudan and South Sudan.

Closing events took place on March 4th and 5th, 2013, at the University of Khartoum and the Embassy of the Netherlands in Khartoum. For more details, visit the CEDEJ website.

 

Political and social restructuring underway in Sudans, June 10-12, 2013

The CEDEJ-Khartoum and the CFEE-Addis Ababa are organizing a roundtable conference in Addis Ababa on June 10-12, 2013 regarding Sudans’ reconstruction.

The independence of South Sudan in July, 2011 created as many opportunities as it aroused difficulties and threats. The resumption of confrontations between the North and the South in 2012 further complicated dialogues among intellectuals from each country and showed how perilous it was to reorganize power systems, both in North and South, and how difficult it could be to reach stabilization. Facing secession, euphoria in the South and acceptation in the North gave way to heavy political, economic and safety challenges.

From an academic point of view, the separation between the two States opens new research fields in social sciences. The analysis themes regarding ongoing political and social restructuration are various, and for a majority of them, not much studied, given the recentness of the partition. Therefore, the CEDEJ-Khartoum and the CFEE-Addis Ababa launched a scientific dialogue process on Sudans. That work finds its originality in the will to give an academic content to the debate, often missing in official talks.

Moreover, this process of prolific scientific meetings contributes to compensate for the lack of current and searched academic works led by Sudanese and South Sudanese researchers together. The 2013 conference aims at opening the debate to a large panel discussion, in the perspective of publishing the conference’s proceedings.

Check out the call for papers on our website! ◼

Islam and Society in Sudan and South Sudan

The CEDEJ Khartoum led a two years project on Islam in Sudan, part of an overall research program, “Strengthening Knowledge of and Dialogue with the Islamic/Arab World” commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands.

The research program started in April 2011, at a critical moment of Sudan’s history, right after the referendum in South Sudan and the birth of the new State. The multifaceted relationship between religion and society in Sudan has been deeply affected both by twenty-three years of the Islamist regime, the secession of South Sudan in 2011 and the departure of almost one third of the population, the majority of whom were non-Muslims.

The new political context following the secession in Sudan has not only affected actors of Islam and  the Muslim majority but also religious minorities that included non-Muslims and Muslims who are not part of the Sunni majority.  The secession of South Sudan had affected in a significant manner the status of Muslims from Southern Sudanese Muslims in the new state of South Sudan as well as the non-Muslim minorities in Sudan.

The objective of this study is to analyze these recent developments in the religious spectrum during the past two decades in Sudan by focusing first on the emerging actors/trends and new religious practices, and second on the status of religious minorities and interreligious relations in Sudan and South Sudan. In the first part of the study, the authors seek to highlight the pluralism of expression of Islam and new forms of urban religiosity and link these with the social and political changes. The second part covers the issue of the status of religious minorities in Sudan and South Sudan. The category of minority in this research includes non-Muslims in Sudan, Muslims who are not part of the Sunni majority and Muslims in South Sudan. The authors highlight the state’s policies (legal, political and administrative) to manage their religious minorities, explaining the current fragile status of religious minorities.  The issue of how minorities perceive themselves and how they are perceived and protracted in the public opinion is an important aspect of their status in the state and society. This is dealt with in a closing chapter that focuses on the public discourse on minorities. The public discourse on minorities is an interesting area to identify the influence of new religious trends.

This study has been conducted by researchers from different disciplines in social sciences. This multidisciplinary approach contributes largely to relate the socio-political and legal dimensions of the problematic of Islam and society in Sudan. For more details, read the synthesis report available on our website. ◼

Researching Sudan

Les carnets du CEDEJ-Khartoum doivent permettre de suivre les activités du CEDEJ au Soudan ainsi que ‎l’actualité sur les Soudans en matière de recherche en sciences humaines et sociales.
L’identité et l’actualité du centre y seront présentées (histoire, équipe, programmes de recherche en cours, conférences, publications etc.). Mais il s’agit également de faire du blog Hypothèses un lieu de partage de l’actualité des Soudans vue par les chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales spécialistes de la région. ◼

CEDEJ Khartoum