The Sudanese team of the Andromaque project held a second Workshop in Khartoum in the reading room of the CEDEJ, on Sunday 2 March, from 9:00 am to 13:00 pm.
The Andromaque Sudan Team gathered European and Sudanese researchers, whose main background is social anthropology, and has recently integrated 2 researchers with a law background. The members present at the workshop of the research team were: Barbara Casciarri (anthropologist, University Paris 8 Saint Denis, France, team’s scientific coordinator); Munzoul Assal and Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil (Department of Anthropology, UoK); Mohamed Abdessalam Babiker (Department of Law, UoK); Philippe Gout (PhD in Law, University Paris II Panthéon Assas, France) and Mai Azzam ( PhD student in anthropology, Khartoum, Sudan). Alice Franck, the coordinator of the CEDEJ in Khartoum was also present during the workshop.
For further information about the Andromaque project you can refer to the post about the first workshop of Andromaque.
Franck Derrien is geographer. After his master (université Paris-IV-Sorbonne, Institut de géographie), he defended his PhD thesis entitled “Analyse de l’occupation du Sinaï durant l’Holocène : comparaison des occupations humaines actuelles et passées” at the university of Aix-Marseille the 25th june 2012.
Franck Derrien works in Egypt since 10 years. In this country, his research focuses on an ethnographic study of the Bedouin of Sinai, their tribal boundaries, the seasonal management of the territories and the saints’ cult practices. After 2 years in Cairo as a researcher for the French ministry of foreign affairs (Nov 2004 – Nov 2006) and more than 1 year as a Police officer to the French ministry of higher education and research in Paris (Oct 2009 – Jan 2011), he is Research associate to the Cedej-Khartoum since 2012.
Franck Derrien works in Sudan since 2008. His research focuses on an ethnographic study of the nomads who use the desert roads of the Sudanese western desert for animal, salt and natrun trade.
Coming back from Selima oasis (North Sudan)
Selima is located approximately 120 km north-west of the Nile at the latitude of Sedeinga and 70 km from the border with Egypt. This oasis was a stop on the Darb al-Arbain linking Darfur (Sudan) to Assiut (Egypt), through Bir Natrun, al-Chab and Kharga, among others. This track was used, at least in some portions, until the 1980s. The team of the French archaeological mission “Selima Oasis Project” worked in this oasis between the 31st October 2013 and the 17th November 17, 2013, under the direction of Coralie Gradel, Researcher at the French Unit of the National Museum in Khartoum (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs /CNRS). The team included two German researchers from the University of Cologne and four Sudanese (an inspector of antiquities, a driver and two workers).
As the geographer of this archaeological mission, Franck Derrien was responsible for mapping the oasis (vegetation, water resources …) in November 2011. Two years later, the aim was to complete the map, to obtain informations about the excavation and the transport of salt and natrun by nomads between Egypt and Sudan and get information about the current use of the desert roads of the Sudanese Western Desert by nomads for animal trade (camel, donkey, cow…). This study is a continuation of the research that he leads in the Egyptian Western Desert since 2012 when he began an ethnographical study of the Rachaida, a tribe whose members moved along the Darb al-Arbain between the oasis of Kharga and Selima until the 1980s.
The results of the first mission conducted in 2011 were presented at the 7th International Conference of the Dakhleh Oasis Project organized by the University of Leiden (http://media.leidenuniv.nl/legacy/dop-2012-programme.pdf). The first results of the 2013 mission will be presented at the 13th International Conference for Nubian Studies at the University of Neuchâtel between the 1st and the 6th September 2014.
The touristic performance of Sudan
Sudan is now at a key moment in its history. When he was still the largest country in Africa, the economy was mainly based on oil. Following the self-determination referendum which resulted in the declaration of independence of South Sudan on 9th July 2011, Sudan lost 10 millions of inhabitants, a quarter of its surface and substantially all of its oil revenues, the fields are mainly located in the south. The country is therefore time to decide. Sudan must find other sources of income. Can tourism contribute significantly to the supply of foreign exchange and job creation in this country?
After a short presentation of the current economic context of Sudan, Franck Derrien present successively the assets of the country regarding tourism, its touristic performance, the strategies implemented to optimize the sector of the tourism and the challenges to increase its economic weight. This study ends with a synthesis which recapitulates the strengths and the weaknesses of the sector of the tourism in the Sudan in 2013, without forgetting the opportunities and the threats (SWOT Analysis). This article will be published mid-2014 :
Franck Derrien. Le Tourisme au Soudan : une destination confidentielle ? Tourisme et territoires. Volume 4. Juin 2014.
Guillaume Sauloup is a Ph.D student in geography at the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (UMR Prodig-CNRS). He analyses street economies in Sudan. He conducted five fieldworks since 2010 with the assistance of CEDEJ. After a first study (for a master degree) on construction laborers, his current research focuses on street workers in several neighborhoods of the capital of the Sudan (Khartoum 2, Souk el arabi, Mayo, Deim). The aim of the research is to understand the contribution of street jobs in the shaping of urban space and their role in the « urban belonging » of workers. Guillaume is currently writing his thesis and teaching at the university.
The Sudanese team of the Andromaque project held a first Workshop in Khartoum in the reading room of the CEDEJ, on Sunday 24th November, from 10:00 am to 17:00 pm.
Andromaque is the acronyme for Anthropologie du Droit dans les Mondes Musulmans Africains et Asiatiques (Law Anthropologie in the African and Asian Muslim Worlds), a scientific research project supported by the French ANR (National Agency for Research) and led by Baudoin Dupret, director of the Centre Jacques Berque (Rabat, Morocco). It was launched in 2011 and will be achieved at the end of 2014. Its aim is to inquiry the relation between different sources of law (mainly customary and Islamic law) starting from the observation of actual legal practices and related social dynamics among Muslim groups in various regional contexts (Morocco and Sudan in Africa, India and Indonesia in Asia). It is coordinated with Prometee, a project whose aims and issues focus on the same approach and which analyzes similar situations of “legal pluralism” in Mauritania, Algeria and Lebanon.
The Andromaque Sudan Team gathered 6 European and Sudanese researchers, whose main background is social anthropology, and has recently integrated 2 researchers with a law background. The members of the research team are: Barbara Casciarri (anthropologist, University Paris 8 Saint Denis, France, team’s scientific coordinator); François Ireton (socio-economist, CNRS, France); Yazid Ben-Hounet (anthropologist, Laboratoire d’Anthropologie Sociale, France); Munzoul Assal and Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil (Department of Anthropology, UoK); Zahir M. Abdelkarim (anthropologist, PhD candidate at the Max Planck Institute, Germany); Mohamed Abdessalam Babiker (Department of Law, UoK) and Philippe Gout (PhD in Law, University Paris II Panthéon Assas, France).
The main topics tackled by the research team are: issues of land property and transmission in contemporary Sudan (pastoral collective “tribal” lands; agricultural land along the Nile Valley; residential land in the peripheral areas of Greater Khartoum); processes of conflicts’ legal resolution in various contexts (“informal courts” in IDPs areas around the capital town; mechanisms for settlement of disputes between farmers and pastoralists in the Eastern region; trials in “state courts” of Khartoum); overviews of the evolution of legal system(s) in Sudan concerning mainly land ownership, customary and statutory courts, and the relation between international law and shari’a law concerning the definition of minorities.
The aim of the workshop was to present the evolution of the various fieldwork cases, to establish a stronger relation between the social anthropology and the law approaches to legal practices and systems in contemporary Sudan and to link them to the wider common questions raised by the Andromaque project as a whole. The participants to the workshop also discussed the project of an edited book, that should be published soon after the end of the research program (2014) and would hopefully represent an interesting contribution for an interdisciplinary insight to this domain (legal practices and normative law systems) that is so crucial for understanding social dynamics in contemporary Sudan. Another meeting of the Andromaque Sudan Team would be held between February and March 2014, whose aim will be both the follow up of the editorial project and the organization of a final open workshop for the end of 2014.
Philippe Gout is a Ph.D student in international law at the Institute of Higher International Studies (Paris 2 Panthéon-Assas University). His research relates to The Protection of Minorities in Peacebuilding Process and mainly addresses ethnic groups. Relying on a regional approach, Philippe essentially focuses on the African context and on the legal innovations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.
His research brings closer two different issues: Peacebuilding – which is often equated to the new legal and controversial concept of jus post bellum – and the law of minorities. So as to associate these two issues into one comprehensive study, the research combines two objectivist approaches to international law: the sociological approach (G. Scelle) and the more recent democratic approach to international law (built upon J. Habermas’ thought).
Starting with Sudan as his main field research, Philippe intends to widen the scope of his study to Sudan’s surrounding States in order to challenge the classic legal dichotomy between international and internal armed conflicts. In so doing, the research aims at testing the consistency of the new legal concept of jus post bellum and at determining the nature and scope of the legal responsibility and accountability of peacebuilding stakeholders: from local tribal units to international organizations’ agencies.
The research otherwise aims at determining the extent to which international and regional legal systems rely on traditional laws of ethnic – and religious – groups in an attempt to uphold the peacebuilding process. It notably tries to determine whether ethnic units can be granted collective status and rights additional to standard individual minority rights. It finally calls into question the international legal personality of ethnic minorities in the African regional legal context (either as legal or natural person).
After two experiences within the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (Office of the Prosecutor) and the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (Trial Chamber), Philippe was granted a scholarship by CEDEJ and is now carrying Ph.D research in Sudan. He is also a contributor to the Andromaque-Sudan Project (ANR – CJB) related to The Anthropology of Law in African and Asian Muslim Worlds: The Sudan.
The CEDEJ-Khartoum has been focusing its scientific activities around three main themes:
Islam and Society in Sudan and South Sudan
The Islam Research Project (IRP) has mobilized a team of Sudanese and foreign researchers around the themes of new religious trends in Sudans and that of the status of religious minorities after the partition. This project was funded by the Dutch Ministry for European Affairs and International Cooperation.
Political and social restructuring underway in Sudan and South Sudan
The CEDEJ-Khartoum has been closely following up political events and their consequences since the partition. Several research projects were launched to underline challenges and opportunities faced by Sudans. For instance, the centre organizes conferences in Addis Ababa to offer Sudanese, South Sudanese and foreign researchers a debating space.
Access to resources and their management
The centre worked on the access to resources and resources management in Sudans. A publication is in progress. Moreover, it took part in the Wamakhair program, led jointly by French, German and Sudanese institutions and dealing with water management in reater Khartoum.
Seminars and conferences
The CEDEJ-Khartoum wishes to favor research and exchanges among Sudans’ specialists. In that perspective, the center regularly organizes conferences and workshops to present and share its works, in Sudan as well as abroad. Moreover, the branch welcomes PhD seminars, which consists of a series of presentations given by PhD students regarding Contemporary Sudan and South Sudan in human and social sciences.
The CEDEJ welcomes and supports students willing to carry researches on Sudan and South Sudan. It offers short-lived grants to young researchers in human and social sciences, Sudanese as well as foreigners. Moreover, in collaboration with the Cultural Cooperation Department of the French Embassy in Sudan, it supports a few Sudanese PhD students who were granted a scholarship to go study in France. Finally, the branch provides European PhD students with an International Mobility Grant (Aide à la Mobilité Internationale – AMI), aiming at supporting research on contemporary Sudan and South Sudan in anthropology, sociology, geography, political science, economy, history or law. ◼
In 2007, the CEDEJ Khartoum opened a documentation centre in its facilities (Khartoum 2, cf. map reverse) for students and researchers working on Sudans.
The centre is opened to the public every day, from 9am to 12am and from 2pm to 5pm. Its development constitutes a priority for the branch in the years to come. It gathers about thousand documents in English, Arabic and French. Internet connection and working space are available.
Les carnets du CEDEJ-Khartoum doivent permettre de suivre les activités du CEDEJ au Soudan ainsi que l’actualité sur les Soudans en matière de recherche en sciences humaines et sociales.
L’identité et l’actualité du centre y seront présentées (histoire, équipe, programmes de recherche en cours, conférences, publications etc.). Mais il s’agit également de faire du blog Hypothèses un lieu de partage de l’actualité des Soudans vue par les chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales spécialistes de la région. ◼