Tous les articles par cedejsudan

La “transition” soudanaise vue des périphéries – Jérôme tubiana

OAE TUBIANA Note 15 Transition Soudan vue des périphéries Octobre 2019

 

Introduction

Les périphéries du Soudan sont au cœur des conflits qui se succèdent dans le pays de manière quasiment continue depuis son indépendance en 1956. Leur rapport asymétrique avec un « pouvoir central » caractérisé par une centralisation extrême peut même être considéré comme la cause essentielle de ces conflits. L’incapacité du « centre » à mettre fin à cette asymétrie et à unir le pays explique aussi la longévité de ces conflits dans les « two areas » des monts Nuba et du Nil bleu, s’ajoutant au conflit du Darfour et conduisant à la séparation du Soudan du Sud en 2011.

La période de « transition » actuellement en cours au Soudan semble, depuis le début des manifestations qui l’ont déclenchée en décembre 2011[1], reproduire en grande partie cette dichotomie entre centre et périphéries, où le « centre » historique se réduit à la capitale elle-même. La couverture médiatique et les discours militants ont souvent, consciemment ou non, reproduit un schéma plus ancien reléguant les citoyens des périphéries au rôle d’acteurs extérieurs ou de simples spectateurs condamnés à accepter les changements se jouant dans la capitale.

Pourtant, les acteurs du centre savent que ce sont les guerres dans les périphéries – celle du Sud-Soudan et celles qui se poursuivent au Darfour, dans les monts Nuba et au Nil Bleu – qui, après avoir longtemps justifié le maintien au pouvoir d’une junte militaro-islamiste consacrant l’essentiel de son budget à des dépenses militaires et sécuritaires, ont provoqué sa chute. D’une part, la séparation du Soudan du Sud a causé une crise économique sans précédent ; d’autre part, la continuation de la guerre au Darfour a rendu le régime dépendant de milices locales qui, comme certains au sein même du régime le craignaient, ont fini par se retourner contre leur maître.

La persistance de la dichotomie entre le centre et les périphéries soudanaises, en particulier les périphéries en guerre, est d’autant plus frappante et inquiétante qu’elle semble résister à une tout autre réalité démographique. Une grande partie de la population des périphéries s’est désormais établie, notamment poussée par la guerre et l’absence d’opportunités économiques, dans le centre : à Khartoum même, dans les zones agricoles de la Jezira, à Gedaref, etc. Si on additionne ces populations à celles restées dans les périphéries, on peut aisément estimer qu’elles constituent au moins la moitié de la population soudanaise : une majorité silencieuse qu’on a parfois qualifiée, depuis la séparation du Soudan du Sud, de « Nouveau Sud » – tant le sentiment que le centre aura toujours besoin d’un « Sud » à exploiter et marginaliser est resté prégnant depuis 2011.

La présente note analyse les raisons de la faible représentation des périphéries en guerre, en particulier du Darfour, dans la « transition » en cours. Elle analysera aussi les risques que cette nouvelle marginalisation pourrait faire peser sur la transition, les acteurs du Darfour n’entendant plus être marginalisés et pouvant désormais compter sur une force militaire sans précédent, capable de rivaliser avec le centre mais aussi de déstabiliser encore davantage le Soudan, sinon la région.

[1] Pour une présentation de la crise, voir Jean-Nicolas Bach Bach, « Ramadan de sang. Le Soudan entre révolution et négociation. Décembre 2018-Juillet 2019 », note de l’Observatoire de l’Afrique de l’Est n°12, juillet 2019. Voir également May Hassan et Ahmed…

Freedom Peace and Justice. A Glossary of the Third Sudanese Revolution (Barbara Casciarri & Stefano Manfredi)

Working Paper 2_Barbara Casciarri & Stefano Manfredi_A Glossary of the Third Sudanese Revolution_March 2020 Working Paper 2_Barbara Casciarri & Stefano Manfredi_A Glossary of the Third Sudanese Revolution_March 2020

Freedom Peace and Justice. A Glossary of the Third Sudanese Revolution (Barbara Casciarri & Stefano Manfredi).

“The 2018-2019 Sudanese revolution can be analyzed from the perspective of the words people repeated, chanted, shouted, wrote and painted during their persistent, and ultimately successful, struggle for liberation from an oppressive system. Embedding old and new values, and circulating beyond the frontiers of age and gender, and social or regional origins, these words have crafted a common symbolic space within their revolutionary experiences, themselves becoming an actor in the construction of a collective subject and the reshaping of its identity. Based on primary and secondary sources, this glossary provides a sociolinguistic analysis of 46 entries that were chosen due either to their wide-scale occurrence or to their thematic prominence within popular discourse about the revolution, and have been classified into three categories: keywords, slogans and actors”.

Available here:

 

Colloque APAD – Appel à communications

Les circulations dans le Sud global : ethnographies des échanges mondialisés. 
Lomé, 23-26 juin 2020

L’APAD propose pour l’édition 2020 de ses colloques internationaux, co-organisée avec le Département d’Anthropologie et d’Études Africaines de la Faculté des sciences de l’homme et de la société (FSHS) de l’Université de Lomé (Togo), de centrer ses travaux sur les multiples formes de circulation à grande échelle de marchandises, idées, techniques, informations, modèles qui traversent de manière croissante les pays du Sud et les relient au reste du monde.

Il s’agit de revisiter des terrains et des thématiques qui sont au coeur du « tournant global » ayant investi les sciences sociales depuis deux décennies, de discuter de la place qu’y tient l’anthropologie du développement et inversement, de la manière dont elle prend en compte les dynamiques de mondialisation.

Date limite pour proposer une communication : 20 février 2020.

Plus d’informations sur les différents panels ici : https://apad-association.org/colloques/colloque-2020/. 

Prix Michel Seurat 2020 – APpel à candidatures

Le Prix Michel Seurat a été institué par le CNRS en juin 1988 pour “honorer la mémoire de ce chercheur du CNRS, spécialiste des questions islamiques, disparu dans des conditions tragiques.
Ce programme vise à aider financièrement chaque année un (une) jeune chercheur (chercheuse), ressortissant(e) d’un pays européen ou d’un pays du Proche-Orient ou du Maghreb, contribuant ainsi à promouvoir connaissance réciproque et compréhension entre la société française et le monde arabe”.

Depuis 2017, l’organisation du Prix a été déléguée au GIS « Moyen-Orient et mondes musulmans », en partenariat avec l’IISMM-EHESS et Orient XXI.

D’un montant de 15 000 € en 2020, le Prix est ouvert aux titulaires d’un master 2 ou d’un diplôme équivalent, âgés de moins de 35 ans révolus et sans condition de nationalité, de toutes disciplines, travaillant sur les sociétés contemporaines du Proche-Orient et/ou du Maghreb.

Il a pour vocation d’aider un (ou une) jeune chercheur (ou chercheuse) à multiplier les enquêtes sur le terrain, dans le cadre de la préparation de sa thèse.
Les enquêtes doivent avoir lieu sur le terrain. 
La maîtrise de la langue du pays concerné est une condition impérative.

Date limite de dépôt des candidatures :
Mardi 14 avril 2020 (minuit, heure de Paris)

 

Plus de détails sur la démarche à suivre pour déposer une candidature ici : http://majlis-remomm.fr/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/reglement-michel-seurat.pdf

Séjour de recherche postdoctoral – Atlas 2020

Date limite de candidature : 16 mars 2020

 

La Fondation Maison des sciences de l’homme (FMSH) et le Centre français des études éthiopiennes (CFEE) proposent à des postdoctorants ou à de jeunes chercheurs résidant en France, une aide à la mobilité pour réaliser un séjour de recherche de 2 à 3 mois dans la Corne de l’Afrique (Ethiopie, Erythrée, Djibouti et Somaliland).

Seront soutenus des projets de recherche qui s’inscrivent dans la politique scientifique du CFEE, en synergie avec ses chercheurs ou ses partenaires dans la région. Les projets interdisciplinaires sont bienvenus.

Cet appel s’inscrit dans le cadre du programme Atlas de mobilité postdoctorale de courte durée lancé par la FMSH et ses partenaires.

Plus d’informations sur ce lien : https://cfee.hypotheses.org/5268

 

CALL FOR APPLICATIONS: 2020 FIELD GRANTS – CEDEJ KHARTOUM

Khartoum, 1st January 2020

Call Grant Field Work CEDEJ Khartoum 2020

The French Centre for Economic, Law and Social Studies in Khartoum (CEDEJ Khartoum) offers support grants for field works to be conducted in Sudan during the year 2020 (from 1st February until 15th December 2020). These grants shall be dedicated to transportation costs, accommodation, translation, and any research related expense. The grant shall partly or completely cover the expenses of field work. There is no nationality restrictions. Applications can be written in French or in English.

These grants for the year 2020 are supported by the French Crisis Centre (Fonds de stabilisation du Centre de Crise) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the French National Centre for Scientific Research, and CEDEJ Khartoum. Deadline for application: 31st January 2020.

 

Eligibility

The scholarship is open to candidates in Social Sciences and Humanities: Sociology, Geography, History, Political Science, Anthropology, Economy and Law, international relations, war studies. Master students, PhD candidates, researchers or independent researchers are welcome to apply.

 

Call and Proposals – Priority Topics

After the huge popular movement that led to the fall of the 30-years long regime of Omar El-Bashir on April 11th 2019, most of the history of the mobilization and the ongoing transition remain to be written. In order to deepen our understanding of the political events which have been taking place since 2018 in Sudan, and in order to consider them in a broader historical perspective, CEDEJ Khartoum shall support in priority proposals related to three main research areas in 2020: 1. the study of social movements; 2. The ongoing political, economic and social reconfigurations; and 3. sociology of elections. For each of these thematic issues, multi scales analysis will be welcome (international, local, national).

 

  1. The propositions on social movement may consider the history of mobilizations, in a long term perspective: economic, social or political roots and the structuration of the social movements. They may also focus on specific aspects of the movement on the short term (mapping in the demonstrations, role of the social media, songs and words of the revolution, etc.). A sociology of the social movement may also be welcome (the youth, artists, the question of class, dynamics of militantism, mobilizations at the level of the neighborhoods, in rural areas, the role of diasporas, professional association, political parties, Sufi leaders…).
  2. Propositions dealing with the ongoing reconfiguration of the political scene and the remaining challenges, at different levels, are also welcome. What has been called the “deep state” in the media still requires specific research focusing, for instance, on precise branches of the administrations in order to understand the recent and ongoing dynamics of state agents’ mobilities, evictions, and their relation to the regime and the (complaining citizens). The evolution of devolution and the relations between the central and the regional administrations shall also be an important issue to be discussed in the coming years. Again, it may be needed to put this aspect in an historical perspective, but proposals can also focus on contemporary or immediate political history (armed groups, ongoing negotiations, negotiation in the distribution of power between the government and the regions etc.). The reconfiguration of the political party system also represents a central issue, be it in terms of historical cleavages, or in terms of current parties’ evolutions due to the evolution of the leftist parties, and parties based on a certain version of political Islam. Political economy will be a central aspect of these reconfigurations, the challenges remaining huge (re-structuration of the debt, sources of revenues, land related issues, structure of the market, sociology of the business elites…). Last but not least, the transition will also depend on the restructuration of the Armed and security Forces. What kind of models are being applied? Who are the local and international advisors helping implementing these models?
  3. A few research have already been conducted on elections in Sudan. The current reconfigurations may allow further research to be conducted in the capital and the regions that were until recently not accessible. Electoral maps based on former elections may help us better understand the current mobilizations and what citizens have been for in Sudan until today. Abstentionism also may be explored, an issue still to be explored, leading to a broader thinking about what voting means for Sudanese citizens, depending on their social, geographical, and political situation and their relation towards the Sudanese state and successive regimes.

 

Though the main focus of this call shall be these above mentioned issues, we may also consider other proposals on issues related to the main research areas CEDEJ Khartoum has been hosting,

  • Migrations within/from/to/through Sudan and the Horn of Africa
  • Religion and politics
  • Sudan Political Economy
  • Sudan in its regional/international environment

 

Deliverables

Any grant received must be subject to a final report from the beneficiaries (5000 words).

The reports will be published in a series of papers of they reach the required quality, and a final book to be published in English at the end of the program.

 

Application and Selection

All applicants must send in one document a research project, including:

  • The title of the project
  • The address of the applicants, his/her affiliation
  • A short CV
  • A presentation of her project ( 3 000 words) detailing research issues, originality, methods, expected results, and feasibility of the project
  • A provisional program (timetable/dates of field work)
  • A provisional budget and the amount of support asked

Application shall sent to jeannicolas.bach@cedejkhartoum.com

A confirmation email will be sent to each applicant.

The scientific interest, feasibility and relevance of the project, the applicant’s ability to implement them, their innovative dimension, the suitability of the budget, co-funding sources, and the academic value (degree, scientific publication, data collection within a larger project…) will be criteria for evaluation and selection of application by a scientific committee.

 

Closing date for application: 31st January 2020. Selection of candidates will be made by the Coordinator of CEDEJ Khartoum and a selection pluri-disciplinary selection committee.

 

The scholarships will then start as soon as possible from February 1st.

The grant beneficiary will receive 50% of the grant (in euros when bank transfer is possible) at the beginning of the fieldwork. The beneficiary will receive the remaining payment when the final report is submitted to CEDEJ Khartoum and after validation by the scientific committee.

 

Jean-Nicolas Bach – Director CEDEJ Khartoum

 

 

 

OFFRES D’EMPLOI – Centre Afrique Subsaharienne de l’IFRI

L’Ifri recrute un.e chercheur.e au sein du Centre Afrique subsaharienne. Thématiques de recherche : urbanisation, classes moyennes, NTIC. Plus d’informations sur les missions sur la fiche de poste ci-dessous.

L’Ifri recrute également, au sein du Centre Afrique subsaharienne, un.e stagiaire à partir de février 2020 et pour une durée de 6 mois. Plus d’informations sur les missions et le profil recherché ci-dessous.

Conference – Towards a New Social History of Sudan

10-11-12 December 2019, Paris

Organized by Elena Vezzadini (IMAF), Lucie Révilla (LAM Bordeaux), Jean-Nicolas Bach (CEDEJ Khartoum) and Anaël Poussier (Paris 1)

The historiography of modern and contemporary Sudan has been shaped by its political history. Indeed, historians have often been called upon to respond to contemporary crises – civil wars, regime changes, international conflicts – often according to criteria of urgency, at the risk of falling into a certain presentism. In this context, social history, which often requires a slower and punctilious form of research, which does not produce ready-made solutions to the multiple crises in the country, and which put at the centre stage the lives of “ordinary people” has struggled to assert itself on the academic scene.

This conference, which is also a research program, aims to put “ordinary people”, women and men, back at the center of Sudan’s modern and contemporary history. From the outset, we wish to emphasize that the term “ordinary people” should neither hide nor flatten the teeming complexity of Sudanese society. We also wish to consider all the dimensions related to the history of “exceptionally normal” people: their daily lives, beliefs, horizons and desires, their interconnections and circulations, while never forgetting the diversity of the various actors, be it related to their social class or their origin.

Taking the social history of “ordinary people”, including those of the marginalized peripheries, as a starting point for historical research opens up new perspectives, not only on the political history of the country, but also on the changes, breaks and crises that the country has gone through. This includes the understanding of great popular revolutionary episodes that have been pivotal for its history, such as the one that has been taking place since December 2018 and brought the end of Omar al-Bashir’s regime (1989-2019).

Registration and program link here.

Sources: An Interdisciplinary journal on materials and their uses in African Studies

Sources grew out of the observation that academic journals tend to encourage theoretical and epistemological advances at the expense of the field materials under analysis. This journal’s mission is twofold: first, to resituate at the core of the articles the materials upon which researchers produce their reflections, while providing direct access to these materials; and second, to present analyses focusing on the contexts surrounding the production of these materials and their uses. This return to sources deriving from field work will take place in conjunction with topical thematics in African and Africana studies in the social sciences and humanities and will promote interdisciplinary dialogue. Sources thus aspires to restore full visibility to iteration for producing theoretical insights, that is, the movement back and forth between a research problem and the field, between interpretation and data.
More information on this journal down below (English and French).

 

“The Ethiopian-Eritrean Rapprochement After Year One: Cycles of Hope and Despair in Eritrea”

By Tanja R. Müller.

Abstract.
The stalemate that followed the end of a two-year war between Eritrea and Ethiopia in 2000 was over when new Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed unconditionally offered the implementation of peace to Eritrea in July 2019. As a consequence of this rapprochement, many within Eritrea and observers from the outside expected political and economic changes to take hold in Eritrea. In this article I discuss how the first months after the peace agreement did result in a short-lived period of changing conditions of everyday life in Eritrea, largely triggered by the fact that the border between both countries was now open and could be crossed with relative ease. Since the border closed again from April 2019 onwards, a new period of static stalemate has taken hold within Eritrea. This is accompanied by increasingly vocal diaspora engagement most prominent via social media through attacks on the Eritrean President and the demand for his overthrow. While some have drawn parallels to the political change in Sudan expecting a similar scenario to occur, within Eritrea people see such comparisons with caution and in general are vary of the scenarios coming from the divided diaspora. In addition, the Eritrean regime is perhaps less fragile than it may look. And a lesson from Sudan might be that the vili cation of a leader in power is more likely to hinder than advance sustainable political change.

https://www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/sites/sciencespo.fr.ceri/files/OAE14201911.pdf