On Sunday 31st January, Mariam Sharif presented in CEDEJ her M.A. thesis “Interaction between health Institutions in knowledge and medical practices in South Kordofan/Nuba Mountains“
This research focuses on nurses as one of actors who adopt knowledge and medical practices through their interaction with other health practitioners and health institutions in plural medical system. This interaction has been traced through nurses’ process of learning, getting tools and working under the conditions of complex emergencies in South Kordofan.
This research was aiming:
– to deploy qualitative methods (participant observation, narrative interviews) in order to elucidate the interaction of nurses in different health care systems and institutionalized medical knowledge and practices,
– to analyse the challenges for building public health services in conflict and post-war areas, and
– to probe the question how health services can facilitate non-violent social interaction and non-violent contest over resources. ◼
On Wednesday 27th January, Peter Miller hold his first seminar in CEDEJ Khartoum.
Peter Miller, masters student in Social Sciences at the University Paris VIII, presented a case study from his research “Marriage Strategies and Social-Spatial Identity Reconfigurations in Khartoum (Amarat)”, his fieldwork having been carried out with the support of the CEDEJ over the last 3 months. After the presentation we organized a round-table discussion on the analysis of his data. ◼
Doctorante de l’Université de Montréal (département de science politique), récemment de passage au CEDEJ Khartoum, Anne-Lauré Mahé a entrepris de dessiner son récent terrain soudanais. Découvrez ses « Réflexions sur une tradition soudanaise ».
On January 21st, at the University of Khartoum, Dr Katarzyna Grabska presented her book « Gender, Home & Identity: Nuer repatriation to Southern Sudan » (James Currey, 2014).
This book launch was organized with the support of CEDEJ Khartoum and the University of Khartoum.
How and where did returning Nuer refugees make their ‘homes’ in South Sudan? How were gender relations and identity redefined as a result of war, displacement and return to post-war communities? And how were those displaced able to recreate sense of home, community and nation?
During the civil wars in Southern Sudan (1983-2005) many of the displaced Sudanese, including many Nuer, were in refugee camps in Kenya and Ethiopia. In the aftermath of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, they repatriated to Southern Sudan. Faced with finding long-lost relatives and local expectations of ‘proper behaviour’, they often felt displaced again.
This book follows the lives of a group of Nuer in the Greater Upper Nile region. The narratives of those displaced and those who stayed behind reveal the complexity of social change and show how this has impacted on state formation in what is now South Sudan and, in particular, the crucial yet relatively unconsidered transformation of gender and generational relations.
Katarzyna Grabska is a research fellow with the Department of Anthropology and Sociology of Development and a project leader with the Global Migration Centre at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva. She is co-editor (with Lyla Mehta) of Forced Displacement: Why Rights Matter? (Palgrave 2008) and author of numerous articles and book chapters. She is an affiliate of French Research Centre in Khartoum (CEDEJ) and Ahfad University for Women in Omdurman.◼
CEDEJ Khartoum was very pleased to have Dr Jean-Pierre Filiu’s visit on December 17th for a meeting about Islam with several researchers who contributed to the CEDEJ Research programme « Islam and Society in Sudan ».
Since 2006, Dr Jean-Pierre Filiu is Professor of Contemporary History of the Middle East at Sciences Po University. There, he is also a member of the Department of History and teaches in the Paris School of International Affairs (PSIA).
He graduated from Sciences Po University in 1981 and from the National Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilizations (INALCO) (diploma in Chinese in 1983 and in written Arabic in 1985).
He obtained his PhD at Sciences Po University in History (1985) as well as the authorization to supervise research (2008). He was also a visiting professor at the American universities of Columbia and Georgetown.
Dr Jean-Pierre Filiu joined the CERI, the Center of International Research in Sciences Po University in 2009.
From 1988 to 2006, Dr Jean-Pierre Filiu was Adviser for Foreign Affairs in the embassies of France in Syria, Tunisia and Jordan. He this capacity, he also worked in the offices of the Minister of the Interior (1990-1991), the Minister of Defence (1991-1993) and the Prime Minister (2000-2002).
The President François Hollande appointed Dr Jean-Pierre Filiu in 2012 as Member of the Committee for the drafting of the White Paper on Defense and National Security.
You can read two of his recent articles (in French) dealing with Sudan on his blog:
CEDEJ Khartoum was pleased to receive on January 12th, 2016 Dr Stéphane Lacroix, for his seminar « Fieldwork on Islamism: Methodological Issues ».
Dr Stéphane Lacroix is an expert on the Arab World and holds a PhD in political science. He is currently a professor at Sciences Po University and is equally affiliated to CEDEJ Cairo as a senior researcher. His research primarily focuses on political authoritarianism and on the resistance it generates, on social movements and on the relationship between Islam and politics in the contemporary era. Islamist movements lie at the heart of his research, both from the sociological perspective of mobilizations and that of intellectual history. His authoritative fieldwork sites are Saudi Arabia and Egypt. ◼
This article has been published on Noria Research website (Network of Researchers in International Affairs) http://www.noria-research.com/
The travesty election of the Marshal Abdel Fattah el-Sisi to the presidency of the Republic in July 2013 (Final report)1 demonstrates the permanence and the solidity of the authoritarian basis of the Egyptian State apparatus. Despite the political changes that have taken place since 2011, the prolonged presence, including during Mohamed Morsi’s presidency, of the same political actors within the security apparatus, has led, if not to an authoritarian “restoration”, at least to its re-composition within a counter-revolution movement. In order to grasp the modalities of the transformations and reproduction of authoritarian practices at the national level, studying the migratory issue, and more precisely the forced migration of Sudanese exiled in Egypt 2, provides a particularly pertinent analytical entry. Indeed, the issue of migration is administered by the State Security (amn al-dawla), and not by a ministry or any other governmental organ. It thus represents a key to understand both the regional political context and the spaces of migration, as well as the Egyptian “authoritarian syndrome”3
On a tremendously hot afternoon in Khartoum, I am soaking up the freshness of one of the only air-conditioned rooms in my Sudanese family’s compound when my mother-in-law’s mobile phone suddenly jolts to life. Even before she answers the phone we instinctively start to dance and sing to the Sudanese pop song that is her ringtone. This scene resembles the way mobile phones have brought joy and happiness as well as possibilities for increased global connectivity into daily family life in Sudan.
Le Soudan est actuellement à un moment clé de son histoire.
Quand ce dernier était encore le plus grand pays d’Afrique,
l’économie était essentiellement basée sur le pétrole. Suite au
référendum d’autodétermination qui s’est soldé par la déclaration
d’indépendance du Sud-Soudan le 9 juillet 2011, Khartoum a
perdu 10 millions d’habitants, un quart de sa surface et
pratiquement la totalité de ses revenus pétroliers, les gisements
étant principalement situés au sud du pays. Le pays est donc à
l’heure des choix. Le Soudan doit trouver d’autres sources de
revenus. Le tourisme peut-il contribuer de manière significative à
l’apport de devises et à la création d’emplois dans ce pays?
Afin de répondre à cette question, nous commencerons par une
présentation rapide du contexte économique actuel du Soudan.
Puis nous aborderons successivement les atouts du pays en matière de tourisme, la performance touristique de ce pays, les stratégies mises en œuvre pour optimiser le secteur du tourisme et les défis à relever pour accroître son poids économique. Cette étude s’achève par une synthèse qui récapitule les forces et les faiblesses du secteur du tourisme au Soudan en 2013, sans oublier les opportunités et les menaces.
The Sudan, five years after the independence of South Sudan: which reconfigurations, transformations, and evolutions in the “North”?
South Sudan officially gained independence on the 9th July 2011. This was the outcome of the peace agreement signed in January 2005 and in accordance with the national referendum of January 2011. This historic event, which should have put an end on the historical conflict between the Northern and Southern regions and communities, constituted a real challenge in term of adaptation, resilience and innovation for the whole of the society.
In this unprecedented context of the birth of a new national territory, and the remodelling of existing spatial and political configurations, South Sudan has logically been at the centre of attention – whether this be from political actors, researchers or humanitarian donors. However, the North has been profoundly affected by this rupture as well.
The conference « Migration and Exile in the Horn of Africa. State of Knowledge and Current Debates » was held on November 17-18th in Khartoum.
During this two-day conference, about forty researchers have presented their empirical approaches on the issue of migration in the Horn of Africa. This event was jointly organized by CEDEJ Khartoum, CFEE Addis Ababa and the University of Khartoum.
The recent period is characterized by increasing internal migrations and by a growing number of displaced persons in the sub-region, especially in Somalia, Ethiopia and Sudan. At the same time, the number of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea involving migrants coming from the Horn of Africa has tragically climbed. The issue of migration, which today largely captures the attention of media and politicians, has been widely studied by African and European researchers specialized on the Horn of Africa.
In addition to providing scientific approaches on the migratory processes, the conference « Migration and Exile in the Horn of Africa » gave us the possibility to shift and re-center the analysis on the Horn of Africa.
David Ambrosetti, Director of CFEE in Addis AbabaPr Ahmed Mohamed Suliman, Vice-Chancellor of the University of KhartoumDr. Samia Abu Kashawa, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research Bruno Aubert, Ambassador of France in SudanAlice Franck, Coordinator of CEDEJ-KhartoumAhmed M. Gamal Eldin, Associate Professor of Development and Migration in Ahfad UniversityThomas Osmond, CFEEAli Khosroshahi, UNHCRCatherine Dom, WIDE EthiopiaKatarzyna Grabska, the Graduate Institute in GenevaClara Lecadet, EHESS
Katherine Rehberg, UNHCRAzza Yacoub, SOAS LondonMohamed ABDEL SALAM Babiker, University of Khartoum Azza Yacoub and Omar Ismael Mahamoud (CERD Djibouti)Benoit Gaudin, University of Addis Ababa and IRDMaysa Ayoub, AUC Netsereab ANDOM, University of KhartoumPeter Miller (Paris 8) and Amina Said Chire (University of Djibouti)Marion Guillaume, Samuel HallGriet Steel, Utrecht University (The Netherlands) and Catholic University Leuven (Belgium)Géraldine Pinauldt, CFEE
As part of a joint research program “Ritual animal death: circulations of norms and of representations. Comparative approach between France, Bulgaria (Balkans) and Sudan”, we formed a team…
Alice Franck, Geographer and Coordinator of CEDEJ Khartoum
Jean Gardin, Geographer and Assistant professor in Paris I Pantheon-Sorbonne University, and
Olivier Givre, Anthropologist and Assistant professor in Lyon 2 University
…and conducted fieldwork in Khartoum, from 20th of August to the 3rd of September, related to the topic of ritual animal death.
During the course of this fieldwork, we were privileged to meet with a wide range of Sudanese actors: livestock traders, butchers, slaughterers, exporters, organizations in charge of the setting up of standards/norms (health or religious), Islamic NGOs, as well as veterinary services.
CEDEJ Khartoum supported our fieldwork in Sudan which was the third and final terrain complementing our comprehensive programme of comparative research characterized by a special focus on Aïd el Adha
Initially, we contrasted the concept “ritual death” to a hypothetical death devoid of metaphysical sense”. While binary, this dichotomy makes sense in view of the current debates on ritual animal death specifically in France. However comparative work in Bulgaria, France and Sudan demonstrates, through the diversity of practices and discourses, that the “ritual” and the “profane” exist on a continuum.
From this perspective, we consider other variations deserve to be studied in order to better analyze the circulation of norms that surround animal death such as the distinction between industrial and domestic slaughter. The fact that animal slaughter has become an increasingly technical process raises a lot of concerns for our interlocutors in France, Bulgaria and Sudan. We think that the dichotomy “industrial VS domestic slaughter” should not be too acute because the term “domestic” itself needs to be interrogate since its exact definition remains ambiguous.
Due to a focus on normative framework, we were interested in familiarizing ourselves with the role of the professional bodies that adopt, design and perpetuate norms and standards. We observed that this “space of norms and standards” is very hierarchical and well structured at the international level, (with the World Organization for Animal Health), at the national level (for example, in Sudan, with the Halal Council, the office in charge of halal norms), and at the municipal level (municipal veterinary).
We equally focus on exploring the differences in perception related to notions of “animal welfare”, which have been defined by veterinaries and various international organizations. Contrary to France – where the concern with “animal welfare” is not exclusive to pet but also pertains to livestock -, in Bulgaria it remains confined to the former. Significantly the issue in Sudan does not reach a level of public concern.
Furthermore, we found it particularly relevant to study the relationship between norms and trust. We cursorily noted that the loss of trust in industrial slaughter is strong in France, weak in Bulgaria and negligible in Sudan: respecting the hierarchy of GDP per capita, the duration of urbanization and of the level of industrialization within the meat market. However the multiplicity of contexts is highly relevant since it contributes to mitigating or even contradicting this evolutionary pattern. This makes for a more fluid reading of the heterogeneous manifestations of norms and standards.
Inter-subjective trust stands in opposition to impersonal norms, however multiple interviews expose a variant of trust in relation to the norms (eating organic or eating halal); which may in turn be subverted by the further interrogation of what constitutes “organic” or “halal”? The latter trust is inscribed in a specific label.
The question of trust equally posits itself in our findings related to Eid sacrifices which take place in the country of the South through the interventions of Islamic NGOs. The issue of delegation is highly charged since it bears the onus of sacrificing on behalf of another on a sacred plane. In the western context where the majority of donors is to be found, the issue of how industrial slaughter houses operate, directs the choices of a Muslim clientele in opting for a distant slaughter.
Departing from a study which was essentially dealing with the sacred and non sacred aspects of animal death, we were quikly confronted with the salience of the norms. We do not profess to be offering a novel contribution, however our contribution offers a clearing for further interrogations surrounding the status of the standardization of animal death.
Our next step: A workshop on the topic of animal death – open to the public – will be held on Friday 27th, November 2015 (9 am – 1 pm), at the Institute of Geography, in Paris 1 University.
The following picture was taken during a night slaughter in the mastaba (about 200 bulls and camels and 600 goats and sheeps slaughtered between 11 pm and 7 am on a slab by a hundred butcher boys), in Khartoum. If taken (generally undercover) in a northern-american or european industrial slaughterhouse, this kind of pictures is often used to accuse meat-eaters and meat-producers of cruelty toward animals. But at the same time, we’d like to point that another-wiser-interpretation is possible : even in rude conditions (blood, direct vision…) the animals are partly cooperative in the process. Even if they are afraid and must be dragged by force, they show a confidence in the men’s activity. We’d like to impute that to the intensity of physical and emotional exchanges during the whole life of the animal, with humans, in a semi-industrial and semi-traditionnal process.
The thesis defense took place on Friday, November 27th, 2015 at 9 am at the University Paris 8, 2 rue de la Liberté, 93200, Saint Denis in the Hall of theses, Deleuze area (Building A, 1st floor).
The jury was composed of: – AYEB Habib, Senior Lecturer in Geography at the University Paris 8
– Alain BERTHO, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Paris 8
– David BLANCHON, Professor of Geography at the University Paris Ouest-Nanterre.
– Barbara CASCIARRI, Lecturer in Anthropology at the University Paris 8 (supervisor)
– Eric DENIS, Geographer, Director of research at CNRS (rapporteur)
– Aline HEMOND, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Picardie Jules Verne (rapporteur)
– Mauro VAN AKEN, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Milano Bicocca
At the turn of the twentieth century, numerous cities such as Cartagena (Colombia) and Khartoum (Sudan), adopted a centralized technical and administrative model for the management of drinking water. Associated since its construction to planned urban development projects, the water network constitutes a political technology and becomes a landmark of urban spatiality, for politicians as well as for technicians and urban dwellers. The compared analysis of access strategies, daily usage, and the role of water in the imagination of two populations with an ambiguous urban status – Caño de Loro (Cartagena) and Tuti (Khartoum) – allows us to approach the social complexity of contemporary cities in the South. The comparison supposes a reflexive orientation that leads us, over and beyond the socio-political dynamics of each context, to critically consider our categories of analysis. In the first part the water network is contextualized in the history of each city, where its recent apparition and setting up rests upon the reinforcement or creation of dense power relations, as well as a new conception of nature, particularly of water. Such relational and political features lead to, in the second part, an understanding of how the materiality of water and its sharing produces particular localities within the urban space. Therefore, the analysis of relations between public and private spheres through everyday water exchanges lets us discuss the relevance of the notion of “collective management” of resources in Cartagena and Khartoum. The third part considers the mechanisms draw on by different actors within the particular context of urban planning to negotiate their margin of action on land and water. It highlights the political dimension of identity categories as well as the transformative power of individual and collective actions in situations where resource management is crossed with individual, local, national, and global logics at the same time.
Au tournant du XXe siècle, un modèle technique et administratif centralisé est adopté pour l’approvisionnement en eau de consommation dans de nombreuses villes de la planète, dont Carthagène (Colombie) et Khartoum (Soudan). Dès lors, associé aux projets de développement urbain planifié, le réseau hydrique se constitue comme une technologie politique et devient un marqueur de la spatialité et des modes de vie urbains, autant pour les administrateurs que pour les techniciens et les populations citadines. L’analyse comparée des stratégies d’accès, des usages quotidiens et de l’imaginaire lié à l’eau de deux populations insulaires dont le caractère urbain s’avère problématique – Caño de Loro (Carthagène) et Tuti (Khartoum) – permet d’aborder la complexité sociale des villes du Sud contemporaines. La comparaison comporte dans ce sens une orientation critique et conduit, au-delà de l’étude des dynamiques sociopolitiques propres à chaque contexte, à interroger les diverses catégories d’analyse utilisées au cours de ce travail. Dans la première partie de la thèse, le réseau hydrique est restitué dans l’histoire de chaque agglomération où sa mise en place, relativement récente, repose à la fois sur le renforcement, voire sur l’émergence, d’importants rapports de pouvoir et sur une transformation dans la conception de la nature, et plus particulièrement de l’eau. Ce caractère relationnel et politique du réseau ouvre la voie, dans une deuxième partie, à la compréhension de la façon dont la matérialité de l’eau et ses échanges contribuent à la production de « localités » particulières au sein de l’espace urbain. Ainsi, l’analyse des relations entre espaces publics et privés par le biais du partage quotidien de l’eau amène à discuter la pertinence de la notion de « gestion collective » des ressources à Carthagène et à Khartoum. La troisième partie aborde les mécanismes mobilisés par différents acteurs, dans le contexte particulier de la planification urbaine, pour négocier leur marge d’action sur l’eau et la terre. Elle met en lumière la dimension politique des catégories d’appartenance ainsi que le pouvoir transformateur des actions collectives et individuelles dans des situations où la gestion des ressources est traversée par de logiques, à la fois individuelles, locales, nationales et globales.