Raphaëlle Chevrillon-Guibert has defended her thesis « Des commerçants au cœur de l’expérience islamiste au Soudan. Rapports de/au pouvoir et recompositions des communautés darfouriennes zaghawa à l’aune des alliances du mouvement islamiste soudanais (1950-2011) » at the University of Auvergne (France) on the 6/12/2013. She was housed by the CEDEJ center of Khartoum during her fielwoks. Here is the abstract of her thesis:
« The study examines the formation and the domination of Sudanese Islamists’ hegemony (Gramsci, 1929-1935) by shedding light on the alliances they constructed with specific segments of the Sudanese society before and after their rise to power. More specifically, it aims to provide an analysis of the alliances’ formation with members of the Zaghawa-Darfurian ethnic community, with a special focus on economic activities. This analysis of the “constellations of interests” (Weber, 1921) of the different actors and their conjunction, enables to understand the ways people obey and disobey. Thus, this dissertation underlines how the Zaghawa communities have been associated to the Islamist project very early and describes the modalities of this association. One result is that those alliances are in fact all but a monolithic system but far more the result of various interests’ articulation at different levels (individual, collective, local or regional, professional or family, etc.) which never stop to be redrawn.
This work is based on a one year fieldwork and combined with a methodological approach using various scale levels (Revel, 1996; Grossetti, 2006).
It shows some of the mechanisms for the support, acceptance or accommodation (three ways to obey for an individual) of an authoritarian regime. It reveals that those mechanisms aren’t the unique result of explicit strategies or a question of legitimacy but depend on both individual and collective logics of action, that are more or less autonomous and that develop in specific systems of constrains.
Antonio Gramsci, Cahiers de prison, présentés et traduits chez Gallimard en 5 volumes, Paris, 1978 (cahiers 10 à 13), 1983 (6 à 9), 1990 (14 à 18), 1992 (19 à 29),1996 (1 à 5)
Michel Grossetti, « Trois échelles d’action et d’analyse. L’abstraction comme opérateur d’échelle », L’Année Sociologique, vol. 56, n° 2, p .285-307, 2006.
Jacques Revel (dir.), Jeux d’échelles. La micro-analyse à l’expérience, Le Seuil-Gallimard, Paris, 1996, 248 p.
Max Weber, Économie et Société, 1921. Traduction française Plon, Paris, 1971, 650 p. »